การปรับสภาพพันธุ์พืชที่ใกล้สูญพันธุ์ พืชเฉพาะถิ่น และพืชที่ถูกคุกคาม ในระบบนิเวศบนบกที่ถูกรบกวน ในมาเลเชียและไทย
- Domestication of Endangered, Endemic and Threatened Plant Species in Disturbed Terrestrial Ecosystem in Malaysia and Thailand -

Planting and Tending at Mae Moh site

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Site preparation

At Mae Moh site, weeding and clearing debris was done prior to setting the plot. Marking the planting holes was carefully done by GPS lining. Boundarywas lined by using hand compass. The first staking was marked at 1 meter away from boundary corner. Each hole was space at 4×4 m2. 50x50x50 cm square hole was dug at the right hand side corner of the stake as shown in Figure 1. Soil driller was used to loosen the soil further down at the bottom of the holes at least 30 cm depth. Half bag of soil mix as described below was filled into the hole before planting EETS seedling.


Figure 1.digging plant holes and loosening lower soil.

Mixing of planting medium

Planting medium was included coconut peat, compost, rice husk ash, and surface soil in a ratio of 9:6:2:6. Compost was consisted of cow dung, saw dust, rice straw and agricultural crop residual mix together and left to decomposition over 1 year. The materials were mixed using cement mixer. 40 liters of the mixed medium was filled into each planting hole.

Lay out of EETS in 6 replications.

The planting site located on a long sloping area with the width of about 60-70 m, the length parallel to the inspection road along both sides.6 blocks of 12 rows concludes 25 plants per row were set lengthwise as shown in Figure 2.In each block, 2 rows of each EETS were planted as shown in diagram. An exceptional case was occurred in block 2 where 26 plants per row were planted and the block is separated by a ditch between plant number 13 and 14.

Figure 2 Boundary map shows lay out of 6blocks of plantation.

Tree planting

6 EETS include Dalbergia cochinchinensis, Dalbergia oliveri, Aquilaria crassna, Vatica diospyroides, Neobalanocarpus heimii, and Cotylelobium lanceolatum were planted covers the area of 3 ha allocated according to designed (Figure 3). To plant a seedling, soil around the hole was used to fill up the hole and mixed with the planting materials below. Small hole was then dug to suit the plant size. Plastic bag was removed from the seedling before placing the seedling into the hole. Soil around the plant was then collected to cover the hole around the seedling base. The soil was then pressed firmly. There was rain during planting time and the soil was wet, watering after planting was not applied.

Figure 3.Layout of Species allocation.

Note :
T1 is Cotylelobium lanceolatum
T2 is Dalbergia oliveri,
T3 is Neobalanocarpus heimii
T4 is Aquilaria crassna
T5,is Vatica diospyroides
T6 is Dalbergia cochinchinensis

Tending after planting.

Plastic sheets were installed over the seedlings to provide shade for the species from rain forest ie Neobalanocarpus heimii, Vatica diospyroides, Aquilaria crassna and Cotylelobium lanceolatum as shown in Figure 4. Banana shoot was planted 1 m away from each seedling as nursing plant. But the banana was infected by some insects and many of the bananas died (Figure 5). To prevent moisture loss from soil during dry season, mulching with corn residues was used to cover soil around the base of seedling as 10 cm thickness and 50 cm diameter wide (Figure 4).

Figure 4 Plastic sheets were installed over rain forest EETS and plant base was mulched with corn husk to retain soil moisture content.

Figure 5 Banana were planted as nurse plants but infected by insect causing many die.

Watering and fertilizing.

Manual watering was deployed using water truck (Figure 6). The technique was changed from broadcast spraying to directly watering to individual plant after consulting by Dr. Ang Li Ho, Project leader. Frequency of watering depends on the soil moisture. Compost fertilization was applied by broadcasting technique around seedling base every 2 month.

Figure 6.Watering was done manually, broad spray was changed to watering individual plant as suggested by Dr. Ang Li Ho.

Weeding

3 months after planting weeding were done just 1 m around tree base, in order to provide rain forest environment for seedlings. The weeds, however, grow very wild after 4 months and obstruct watering route. Clearing all weed was done in December (Figure 7).

Figure 7. Weeds in the area were too dense, controlling weed need to be deployed.

Fire and cattle controlling

In this area forest fire is notorious. Intensive fire controlling is a regular practice by the Mae Moh mine forest management. At the demonstration plot, fire line was constructed around to prevent forest fire and serve as watering route as well. There are more than 10,000 cattle feeding in the area. The animals are allowed freely roaming, strong fencing is, therefore, necessary (Figure 8).

Figure 8.Watering route was built to serve as fire line both side of the plot. Barbed wire fencing was put up around the plot to keep out cattle.

Monitoring and evaluation.

After planting, performance of plants were observed and photographed. Survival rate of seedlings were recorded at 1 and 3 month old. Diameter at ground level and height of every seedling was measured at 3 month old (Figure 9).

Figure 9. Monitor of plants by photography and growth measurement.

In order to monitor microclimate in the study site 3 data loggers were set as shown in Figure 10. Temperature and relative humidity at 30 minutes interval will be uploaded to notebook every 2 month. First data is expected to be uploaded by the early March 2017.

Figure 10. 2 data loggers were set in the open while 1 data loggerwas set under shade to compare microclimate underneath the shade and in the open area.

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